Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East

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Ballistic Missiles and Space Launch Vehicles (SLV) Deployed in the Middle East1

Ababil-50 50 95 Indigenous Iraq
Al Hussein2 650 500 Indigenous/Russia Iraq
CSS-2 [DF-3] 2,800 2,150 China Saudi Arabia
CSS-8 150 190 China Iran
Jericho-1 500 500 Indigenous/France Israel
Jericho-2 1,500 1,000 Indigenous/USA3 Israel
MGM-52 Lance 130 450 USA Israel
MGM-140 ATACMS 160 450 USA Turkey
Mushak-120 130 150 Indigenous Iran
Mushak-160 160 500 Indigenous/China Iran
Mushak-200 200 500 Indigenous/China Iran
Project T 450 985 North Korea Egypt
Scud-B 300 985 Russia Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Yemen, UAE
Scud-C 500 700 North Korea Iran, Syria
Scud-C 5504 500 North Korea Libya
Shavit (SLV) 4,500 150-200 Indigenous Israel
SS-21 Scarab 70 480 Russia Libya, Syria, Yemen


  1. This list summarizes information available from public sources. Data were drawn primarily from: "Missile and Space Launch Capabilities of Selected Countries," The Nonproliferation Review, forthcoming 1998. Duncan Lennox, ed., Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems Issue 24, 5/97. Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, "Master Tables," [Online] Federation of American Scientists, "Missile Proliferation Update," [Online]
         Data were also drawn from articles in: Air & Cosmos/Aviation International, Arms Control Reporter, Arms Control Today, Defense News, Ha'aretz, International Herald Tribune, Flight International, Jane's Defence Weekly, Jane's Intelligence Review, Jerusalem Post, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Nuclear News, Policy Watch, Report on Middle East Affairs, Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Voprosy bezaposnosti, Washington Times, Weekly Defense Monitor, and Yedi'ot Aharonot.
         Additional sources consulted: Ian O. Lesser and Ashley J. Tellis, Strategic Exposure: Proliferation Around the Mediterranean (Santa Monica: RAND, 1996). [Study Prepared for the United States Army]. Zeev Eytan, "Regional Military Forces," The Middle East Military Balance, 1993-94 (Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, 1994). Bates Gill, Silkworms and Summitry; Chinese Arms Exports to Iran and US-China Relations (Asia and Pacific Rim Institute of the American Jewish Committee, 1998). Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict (London: Grafton Books, 1989). Foreign Defense Assistance and Defense Export Organization (SIBAT), Israel's Defense Sales Directory, 1997/98 (Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense, 1997).
  2. Iraq may retain a small number of complete Al Hussein (modified Scud-B) missiles as well as components for dozens more. Michael Eisenstadt, "Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): Unresolved Issues," Policywatch#304, 2/27/98, [Online] Anthony H. Cordesman, "Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: National Efforts, War Fighting Capabilities, Weapons Lethality, Terrorism and Arms Control Implications" (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2/98). US Government White Paper, "Iraq Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs," 2/13/98, [Online]
  3. The Jericho-2 guidance system and other components may be based on technology from the US Pershing-2 intermediate-range ballistic missile, and from the joint US-Israel Arrow anti-missile missile program. Harold Hough, "Israel's Nuclear Infrastructure," Jane's Intelligence Review, 11/94, pp. 508-511. "Israel Aims To Improve Missile Accuracy," Risk Report, 6/95, p. 9. Washington Times, 3/13/92, pp. A6, A8.
  4. The Libyan Scud-C achieves a longer range by reducing the payload.

Prepared by Michael Barletta and Erik Jorgensen,
� Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies. May 1998

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Center for Nonproliferation Studies
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