Abdel-Aal H, Morsy TA, Hawwary GH. Clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. JPMA J Pak Med Assoc. 1975;25(9):239-242.

Abdel Wahab RM, el Garem AA, Morsy TA, Essa MH. The histopathological picture of cutaneous leishmaniasis in western part of Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1985;15(2):381-386.

Abdel Wahab RM, Morsy TA, el Garem AA, Bahgat A, Essa MH. Introduced cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1986;16(1):9-16.

Abdel Wahab RM, Morsy TA, Essa MH. Clinical and laboratory aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in Gizan, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1984;14(2):563-572.

Akuffo H, Darce M, Maasho K, Berhan TY. In vivo evaluation of immune responses in leishmaniasis: the use of cross-species leishmanin preparations for skin testing. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53(1):16-22.

Albanese G, Giorgetti P, Santagostino L, Crippa D, Sala G. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:1540-1542.

Alexander J, Russell DG. Parasite antigens, their role in protection, diagnosis and escape: the leishmaniases. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1985;120:43-67.

al-Fouzan AS, al Saleh QA, Najem NM, Rostom AI. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kuwait. Clinical experience with itraconazole. Int J Dermatol. 1991;30(7):519-521.

Al-Gindan Y, Abdul-Aziz O, Kubba R. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Int J Dermatol. 1984;23:194-197.

al-Jurayyan NA, al Ayed IH, al-Nasser MN, al-Mugeiren MM, Boohene AG, al Herbish AS. Visceral leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood epidemiology and clinicopathological study of 63 cases in Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia. J Trop Pediatr. 1992;38(1):12-16.

al-Shammari SA, Khoja TA, Fehr A. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Riyadh region: four-year study of the epidemiologic and clinical features. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31(8):565-567.

al-Taqi M, Behbehani K. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kuwait. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1980;74:495-501.

al-Zahrani MA, Peters W, Evans DA. Visceral leishmaniasis in man and dogs in south-west Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988;82(6):857.

al-Zahrani MA, Peters W, Evans DA, Chin C, Smith V, Lane RP. Phlebotomus sergenti, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988;82:416.

al-Zahrani MA, Peters W, Evans DA, Smith V, Ching CI. Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 5. Diversity of parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis in man and dogs in the south-west. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:503-509.

al-Zahrani MA, Peters W, Evans DA, Smith V, Ching CI. Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 6. Cutaneous leishmania of man in the south-west. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:62l-628.

Alimohammadian MH, Kivanjah M, Pak F, Gaznavia A, Kharazmi A. Evaluation of the efficacy of Iran leishmanin and comparison with leishmanins from Wellcome (UK) and Roma (Italy) in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993;87(5):550-551.

Amichai B, Finkelstein E, Grunwald MH, Halevy S. Think cutaneous leishmaniasis. Aust Fam Physician. 1993;22(7):1213-1214, 1217.

Ankney B. Unusual leishmaniasis found in troops. US Med. 1991;23/24:1, 26-27.

Ashford RW, Bettini S. Ecology and epidemiology. In: Peters W, Killick-Kendrick R, eds. The Leishmaniasis in Biology and Medicine. Vol. 1. London, England: Academic Press; 1987:365-424.

Badaro R, Falcoff E, Badaro FS, et al. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony and interferon gamma. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:16-21.

Badaro R, Jones TC, Carvalho EM, et al. New perspectives on a subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 1986;154:1003-1011.

Ballou RW, Ohl CA. Viscerotropic Leishmaniasis in Returnees From Operation Desert Shield/Storm. Chester, MD: Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Parson's Island;1992.

Belazzoug S. Leishmaniasis in Mediterranean countries. Vet Parasitol. 1992;44(1-2):15-19.

Berman JD. Chemotherapy for leishmaniasis: biochemical mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and future strategies. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10:560-586.

Bienzle U, Ebert F, Dietrich M. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Eastern Saudi Arabia: epidemiological and clinical features in a nonimmune population living in an endemic area. Tropenmed Parasitol. 1978;29:188-193.

Blackwell JM. Leishmaniasis epidemiology: all down to the DNA. Parasitology. 1992;104 (suppl):19-34.

Bogdan C, Stosiek N, Fuchs H, et al. Detection of potentially diagnostic leishmanial antigens by Western blot analysis of sera from patients with kala-azar or multilesional cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 1990;162(6): 1417-1418. Letter.

Bouree P, Belec L. Leishmaniasis: report of 33 cases and a review of the literature. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993;16(4):251-265. Editorial.

Boyer MH. Visceral leishmaniasis in Desert Storm veterans. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(20):1503-1504. Letter.

Bryceson ADM. Leishmaniasis. In: Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG, Warrell DA, eds. Oxford Textbook of Medicine. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 1987:5.524-5.532.

Centers for Disease Control. Viscerotropic leishmaniasis in persons returning from Operation Desert Storm-1990-1991. JAMA. 1992;267(11):1444-1446.

Conti R, Parenti F. Rifampin therapy for brucellosis, flavobacterium meningitis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Rev Infect Dis. 1983;5(suppl 3):600S-605S.

Cotton P. Gulf War symptoms remain puzzling. JAMA. 1992;268(19):2619. News.

Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center. Leishmaniasis: Review of Desert Storm Cases. Washington, DC: Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center; July/August 1992:8. Technical Information Bulletin.

de Letona JML, Vazquez CM, Maestu RP. Visceral leishmaniasis as an opportunistic infection. Lancet. 1986;1:1094.

Dillon DC, Day CII, Whittle JA, Magill AJ, Reed SG. Characterization of a Leishmania tropica antigen that detects immune responses in Desert Storm viscerotropic leishmaniasis patients. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1995;92:7981-7985.

Dye C. Leishmaniasis epidemiology: the theory catches up. Parasitology. 1992;104(suppl):7-18.

Edrissian GH, Mohammadi M, Kanani A, Afshar A, Hafezi R, Ghorbani M, Gharagozloo AR. Bacterial infections in suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68(4):473-477.

Elbihari S, Kawasmeh ZA, Al-Naiem A. Al-Atiya S. Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia 3. Leishmaniasis in Psammomys obesus Cretzschmar in Al-Ahsa oasis. Trop Med Parasitol. 1987;38:89-92.

el-Darouti MA, Al-Rubaie SM. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Treatment with combined cryotherapy and intralesional stibogluconate injection. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:56-59.

el-Safi SH, Peters W. Studies on the leishmaniases in the Sudan. 1. Epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khartoum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85(1):44-47.

el-Safi SH, Peters W, el-Toam B, el-Kadarow A, Evans DA. Studies on the leishmaniases in the Sudan. 2. Clinical and parasitological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85(4):457-464.

el-Safi SH, Peters W, Evans DA. Studies on the leishmaniases in the Sudan. 3. Clinical and parasitological studies on visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85(4):465-470.

el-Sibae MM, Eesa NM. A study on Phlebotomus species, the vectors of leishmaniasis in Gassim, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1993;23(1):231-238.

Fernandez-Guerrero ML, Aguado J, Buzon L, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised hosts. Am J Med. 1987;83:1098-1102.

Fryauff DJ, Modi GB, Mansour NS, Kreutzer RD, Soliman S, Youssef FG. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis at a focus monitored by the multinational force and observers in the northeastern Sinai Desert of Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993;49(5):598-607.

Funke BJ. Leishmaniasis update. Postgrad Med. 1992;91(4):79. Letter.

Giladi M, Block C, Danon YL, Schinder E, Greenblatt CL. Local environmental risk factors in the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Isr J Med Sci. 1988;24(3):185-187.

Giladi M, Danon YL, Greenblatt C, Schinder E, Nili E. Keziot-a new endemic site of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel. An epidemiological and clinical study of a non-immune population entering an endemic area. Trop Geogr Med. 1985;37(4):298-303.

Greenblatt CL, Schnur LF. Leishmaniasis recently imported into Israel. Isr J Med Sci. 1985;21(8):709-710.

Griffiths WAD. Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. In: Peters W, Killick-Kendrick R, eds. The Leishmaniases in Biology and Medicine. Vol 2. London: Academic Press; 1987:617-636.

Grimaldi G Jr, McMahan-Pratt D. Leishmaniasis and its etiologic agents in the New World: an overview. Prog Clin Parasitol. 1991;2:73-118.

Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB. Leishmaniases of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993;6(3):230-250.

Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB, McMahon-Pratt D. A review of the geographic distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the New World. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;41(6):687-725.

Grogl M, Daugirda JL, Hoover DL, Magill AJ, Berman JD. Survivability and infectivity of viscerotropic Leishmania tropica from Operation Desert Storm participants in human blood products maintained under blood bank conditions. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993;49(3):308-315.

Grogl M, Oduola AM, Cordero LD, Kyle DE. Leishmania spp.: Development of Pentostam-resistant clones in vitro by discontinuous drug exposure. Exp Parasitol. 1989;69:78-90.

Grogl M, Thomason TN, Franke ED. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: its implication in systemic chemotherapy of cutaneous and mucocutaneous disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47:117-126.

Gunby P. Desert Storm veterans now may donate blood; others call for discussion of donor tests. JAMA. 1993;269(4):451-452. News.

Hepburn NC, Tidman MJ, Hunter JA. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in British troops from Belize. Br J Dermatol. 1993;128(1):63-68.

Herwaldt BL, Berman JD. Recommendations for treating leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and review of pertinent clinical studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46:296-306.

Hospital Practice. Parasite found. Hosp Pract. November 15, 1992:146-148, 151, 155-160.

Hussien MS, Behbehani K. The epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Kuwait, 1. The occurrence and distribution of Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera, Psuchodidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologic. 1976;81:433-440.

Ibrahim EA, al-Zahrani MA, al-Tuwaigri AS, al-Shammary FJ, Evans DA. Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 9. The black rat (Rattus rattus) a probable reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis in Gizan province, south-west Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86(5):513-514.

Kalra NL, Bang YH. Sandfly vector competence for transmission of Leishmania parasite in tropical Asia. J Commun Dis. 1986;18(1):28-34.

Khairy N, el-Hashimi W. A study of three isolates of Leishmania donovani from patients with kala-azar in Iraq. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1980;74:29-35.

Kibbi AG, Karam PG, Kurban AK. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis in patients from Saudi Arabia: clinical and histologic features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:759-764.

Killick-Kendrick R, Leaney Al, Peters W, Rioux J-A, Bray RS. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: the incrimination of Phlebotomus papatasi as the vector in the Al-Hassa oasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985;79:252-255.

Killick-Kendrick R, Peters W. Leishmaniasis and "Desert Storm." Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86(6):698. Letter.

Kreutzer RD, Christensen HA. Characterization of Leishmania spp. by isozyme electrophoresis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980;29:199-208.

Kreutzer RD, Grogl M, Neva FA, Fryauff DJ, Magill AJ, Aleman-Munoz MM. Identification and genetic comparison of leishmanial parasites causing viscerotropic and cutaneous disease in soldiers returning from Operation Desert Storm. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993;49:357-363.

Kreutzer RD, Souraty N, Semko ME. Biochemical identities and differences among Leishmania species and subspecies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;36:22-32.

Kubba R, El-Hassan AM, Al-Gindan Y, Omer AHS, Kutty MK, Saeed MBM. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 1987;26:300-304.

Le Blancq SM, Peters W. Leishmania in the Old World: 2. Heterogeneity among L. tropica zymodemes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1986;80:113-119.

Leishmaniasis and the Arabian Gulf. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly. 1992;2(14):61.

Lemesre JL, Darcy F, Kweider M, Capron A, Santoro F. Requirements of defined cultivation conditions for standard growth of Leishmania promastigotes in vitro. Acta Trop (Basel). 1988;45:99-108.

Lesho EP. Leishmaniasis. Another threat to Persian Gulf veterans. Postgrad Med. 1991;90(8):213-214, 216-217.

Magill AJ, Gasser RA Jr, Oster CN, Grogl M, Sun W. Viscerotropic leishmaniasis in persons returning from Operation Desert Storm 1990-1991. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(8):1033-1034.

Magill AJ, Grogl M, Gasser RA, Oster CN. Visceral leishmaniases in Desert Storm veterans. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1504. Letter.

Magill AJ, Grogl M, Gasser RA, Sun W, Oster CN. Visceral infection caused by Leishmania tropica in veterans of Operation Desert Storm. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1383-1387.

Magill AJ, Grogl M, Johnson SC, Gasser RA. Visceral infection due to Leishmania tropica in a veteran of Operation Desert Storm who presented 2 years after leaving Saudi Arabia. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:805-806. Letter.

Mahmoud AA, Bolbol AS, Sholou YA. Some aspects of the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Al-Kharaj area of Saudi Arabia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1984;78:605-609.

Mansour NS, Fryauff DJ, Modi GB, Mikhail EM, Youssef FG. Isolation and characterization of Leishmania major from Phlebotomus papatasi and military personnel in north Sinai, Egypt. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85(5):590-591.

Mebrahto Y, Lawyer P, Githure J, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis unresponsive to Pentostam caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;41:289-294.

Melby PC, Kreutzer RD, McMahon-Pratt D, Gam AA, Neva FA. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: review of 59 cases seen at the National Institutes of Health. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15(6):924-937.

Meleney HE. Leishmaniasis. In: Hoff EC, ed. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Vol. 7. Communicable Diseases. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, US Department of the Army; 1964:73-77.

MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report). Viscerotropic leishmaniasis in persons returning from Operation Desert Storm 1990-1991. MMWR. 1992;41:131-134.

Mogul A, Grog M, Ganser RA, Sun W. Osier CAN. Visceral infection caused by Leishmania tropica in veterans of Operation Desert Storm. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1383-1387.

Most H, Lavietes PH. Kala-azar in American military personnel: report of 30 cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 1947;26:221-284.

Nascimento E, Mayrink W, da Costa CA, et al. Vaccination of humans against cutaneous leishmaniasis: cellular and humoral immune responses. Infect Immun. 1990;58(7):2198-2203.

Neal RA, Reeves A, Peters W. Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 7. Partial protection of mice against Leishmania major by prior infection with L. arabica. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84(2): 233-238.

Norton SA, Frankenburg S, Klaus SN. Cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired during military service in the Middle East. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(1):83-87.

Ohl CA, Hyams KC, Malone JD, Oldfield E 3d. Leishmaniasis among Desert Storm veterans: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Mil Med. 1993;158(11):726-729.

Oren R, Schnur LF, Yehuda DB, Mayner V, Okon E. Rachmilewitz EA. Visceral leishmaniasis: a difficult diagnosis and unusual causative agent. J Infect Dis. 1991;164:746-749.

Oster CN, Chulay JD. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In: Strickland GT, ed. Hunter's Tropical Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders; 1991:642-648.

Oster CN, Sanford JP. Febrile illness in a Desert Storm veteran. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1992;27(11):145-148, 151, 155-160.

Palma G, Gutierrez Y. Laboratory diagnosis of Leishmania. Clin Lab Med. 1991;11(4):909-922.

Pearson RD, De Queiroz Sousa A. Leishmania species: visceral (kala-azar), cutaneous, and mucosal leishmaniasis. In: Mandell GL, Douglas G Jr, Bennett JE, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. New York: Longman (Churchill Livingstone); 1990:2066-2077.

Perich MJ, Hoch AL, Rizzo N, Rowton ED. Insecticide barrier spraying for the control of sandfly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;52(6):485-488.

Peters W, Al-Zahrani MA. The leishmaniases - a public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 1987;8:333-343.

Rashti MA, Panah HY, Mohamadi HS, Jedari M. Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT in some foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1992;8(1):99-100.

Sacks DL, Kenney RT, Kreutzer RD, et al. Indian kala-azar caused by Leishmania tropica. Lancet. 1995;345(8955):959-961.

Saenz RE, Paz H, Berman JD. Efficacy of ketoconazole against Leishmania braziliensis panamensis cutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Med. 1990;89:147-155.

Saf'janova VM. Phlebotominae sandflies as the key link of Leishmania parasitic systems. Parassitologia. 1991;33(suppl):505-511.

Sanchez JL, Diniega BM, Small JW, et al. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47(1):47-54.

Schnur LF, Chance ML, Ebert F, Thomas SC, Peters W. The biochemical and serological taxonomy of visceralizing Leishmania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1981;75:131-144.

Selim MM, Vlasin Z, Jaroskova L. Leishmaniasis. Currently recommended treatment. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:318-321.

Soto J, Medina F, Dember N, Berman J. Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated uniforms in the prevention of malaria and leishmaniasis in Colombian soldiers. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:599-602.

Symmers WSTC. Leishmaniasis acquired by contagion: a case of marital infection in Britain. Lancet. 1960;1:127-132.

Tarizzo ML, Bracken HA, Strait DJ. A case of visceral leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1953;2:846-849.

Wali JP, Aggarwal P, Gupta U, et al. Ketoconazole in the treatment of antimony and pentamidine-resistant kala-azar. J Infect Dis. 1992;166:215-216.

Walton BC, Brooks WH, Arjona I. Serodiagnosis of American leishmaniasis by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1972;21:296-299.

Weinrauch L, Livshin R, el-On 1. Ketoconazole in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol. 1987;17:666-668.

Table of Contents