Table 3-9 -- Summary of Epidemiologic Data to Date from Federally Funded Studies

Study            Studies completed or reporting results            Limitations and             Overall findings       
type             (references)                                      generalizability                                 

Mortality       -U.S. Military Casualty Comparisons During the    -Studies include the        -Both battle and nonbattle    
 studies         Persian Gulf War (85)                             entire deployed Gulf        casualty rates were low      
                -Comparative Mortality Among U.S. Military         War service                 during the war, but excess   
                 Personnel in the Persian Gulf Region and          population, thus            mortality from injuries was  
                 Worldwide During Operations Desert Shield and     encompassing the            observed.                    
                 Desert Storm (343)                                experience of the          -Since the war, Gulf War      
                -Mortality Among U.S. Veterans of the Persian      complete population         veterans have experienced    
                 Gulf War (108)                                    of interest.                excess mortality from        
                                                                  -Followup since the          external causes (e.g.,       
                                                                   Gulf War has only           injuries), while rates for   
                                                                   been performed              natural causes (e.g.,        
                                                                   through September           diseases) have been lower    
                                                                   1993.                       or the same as rates in era  

Morbidity       -123rd Army Reserve Command Investigation (41)    -Studies vary in            -Increased symptoms are       
 studies        -24th Naval Construction Battalion                 populations examined        reported by those deployed   
                 Investigation (10)                                and their                   to the Gulf, compared to     
                -Health of Persian Gulf War Veteran Women          generalizability to         other veterans.              
                 (199-201)                                         the Gulf War veteran       -No consistent abnormal       
                -Pennsylvania Air National Guard study             population as a             laboratory or physical       
                 (211,212,291)                                     whole.                      findings in groups with      
                -The Postwar Hospitalization Experience of        -Studies have                increased symptoms.          
                 U.S. Veterans of the Persian Gulf War (75)        differing strengths                                 
                                                                   and limitations.                                    

Studies on the  -Fort Devens VA study (334,336,337)               -Studies vary in size       -Studies indicate higher      
effects of      -New Orleans VA study (254,255,300)                and study                   rates of post-traumatic      
stress          -West Haven VA study (239,240)                     populations.                stress disorder (PTSD) in    
                -Little Rock VA study (300,329)                   -Nearly all have been        Gulf War veterans compared   
                -Highland Drive (Pittsburgh) VA study              performed only in           to nondeployed veterans or   
                 (197,300)                                         Reserve and National        general U.S. population.     
                -Mountain Home, TN study (232-234)                 Guard populations.         -Groups with the most severe  
                -The General Well-being of Gulf War Era                                        stress during the war        
                 Service Personnel from the States of                                          appear to have greater risk  
                 Pennsylvania and Hawaii (245-247,272)                                         of PTSD than other Gulf War  
                -14th Quartermaster Detachment Study (198,204)                                 veterans.                    
                -New Orleans study of Army units carrying out                                                       
                 graves registration duty (252,253,317)                                                             
                -Walter Reed Army Institute of Research study                                                       
                 of units performing graves registration                                                            

Reproductive    -Mississippi National Guard study (195)           -Studies vary in size,     -Risks of birth defects,      
outcome         -Record-based evaluation of the risk of birth      populations examined,      either broadly or narrowly   
studies          defects and military service in the Gulf War      and generalizability.      categorized, were not        
                 (36,37)                                          -Large record-based         different between            
                -Prevalence of congenital anomalies among          study included only        Gulf-deployed and            
                 children born to Gulf War veterans-a substudy     births to active duty      nondeployed troops.          
                 of Goldenhar syndrome (189)                       veterans.                 -Ongoing population-based     
                                                                                              study has not shown a        
                                                                                              statistically significant    
                                                                                              elevation in the rate of     
                                                                                              Goldenhar syndrome.          

SOURCE: Committee, 1996.