[1] Different spellings of Al Jubayl can be found in numerous documents both official and unofficial (for example--Al Jubayi, Al Jubail, or Jubail). For clarity, Al Jubayl will be used in this document.

[2] Pamphlet, United Nations Environment Programme, Sasakawa Environment Prize, United Nations, Environment Programme. 1995 UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize (Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations, 1995) p. 16.

[3] Camp 13 was informally renamed Camp Rohrbach in honor of the late Rear Admiral Richard M. Rohrbach. During his military career, Admiral Rohrbach distinguished himself in performing a variety of command and leadership positions within the Seabees. Source: Transcript of Naval Service for Rear Admiral (Lower Half) Richard M. Rohrbach, Civil Engineering Corps, U. S. Navy, August 1, 1990.

[4] The term "sonic boom" is used in the description of events by eyewitnesses to this event. The command staff of NMCB-24 informed the troops that a sonic boom had occurred. This information is mentioned in the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs report dated 25 May 25,1994, referred to as the Reigle Report, pages 60-67.

[5] Investigation team personnel visited the Headquarters, NMCB-24 in Huntsville, Alabama on March 20-22, 1996, to review and obtain command and air detachment operational records and medical records.

[6] Interviews of NMCB-24 Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) reaction team members are conflicting relating to the use of M-8 detectors. The NBC officer stated that the alarms did not go off but that they were working properly (Lead Sheets 1104, 1009). Another NBC team member stated that the M-8 detectors were not in operation (Lead Sheet 1097).

[7] Interview notes (Lead Sheets 1151, 1099, 1176, 1180, 1161, 1178, 632, 55 and 983).

[8] Lead Sheets 1097, 1104, 1009, op.cit.; Ibid., Lead Sheet 983.

[9] Excerpts of Command Post Log, Naval Mobile Construction Battalion-24, entry of 0332 (Local) 19-21 January 1991 and 19 March 1991, and Watch Log Extract, 3rd Battalion 24th Marines Watch Log.

[10] Security Log, Naval Mobile Construction Battalion-24, entries at 0325, 0326, 0327, 0338, 0345, and 0545 on 19 January 1991.

[11] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[12] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[13] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[14] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[15] NMCB-24 Air Detachment Log for January 19-21, 1991; Lead Sheet 977, op.cit.

[16] Riegle Report, op.cit., page 66.

[17] Quotations taken from newspaper article by Phil Shenon, New York Times, 20 December 1996.

[18] Interview notes (Lead Sheets 5290).

[19] Interview notes (Lead Sheets 3872).

[20] Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) Desk Log, US Central Command (USCENTCOM), January 19, 1991.

[21] Lead Sheets 1180 and 1178, op.cit.

[22] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1173).

[23] Phil Shenon, op.cit.

[24] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1227).

[25] Phil Shenon, op.cit.

[26] Naval Mobile Construction Battalion-24, Medical Admin Log, January 20-22, 1991; NMCB 24 (Camp 13) Sick Call Log January 19-20, 1991; NMCB 24 (Air Detachment) Sick Call Log, January 19-23, 1991.

[27] Lead Sheet 1097, op.cit.

[28] Air Detachment Log, op.cit.

[29] General Support Group 1, 1st Force Service Support Group, Deputy Commander, Critical Facility Force (CTF), Command Chronology for January 1991.

[30] First Marine Expeditionary Force (IMEF), G-3 journals dated January 19, 1991, at 0407, 0425, and 0525.

[31] Daily Update from Logistics Operations Center, dated 190800 Jan 1991.

[32] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 5187).

[33] Radio Station Log from 24th Marines, 18-19 January 1991.

[34] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[35] NMCB-24 Security Logs, op.cit.

[36] Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) Desk Log, US Central Command (USCENTCOM), January 20-21, 1991.

[37] Report, (S/NF), HQ USPACECOM, United States Space Command Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm Assessment (U), January 92, pp 74-76.

[38] (S), CENTAF Operation Desert Storm and Desert Shield Air Tasking Order. (U)

[39] Letter w/attachment, Department of the Air Force 552d Computer Group (ACC) Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, Request for Assistance, not dated.

[40] The speed of sound is approximately 750 miles per hour at sea level. Source: U. S. Air Force FACT SHEET 96-03.

[41] Case Study, Secret, Center for Naval Analyses (CNA), Case Study of a Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) Attack: Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia, 15-16 February 1991 (U), August 1996, page 1.

[42] CNA Study, op.cit., page 11.

[43] CNA Study, op.cit., page 18.

[44] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1410).

[45] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1280).

[46] Although assumed to be missile fuel, the actual content of the fumes has not been identified. It is believed that SCUD missiles fuel was a mixture of Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid and Hydrazine. These substances are highly toxic. Exposure to even small amounts of either substance can cause severe life threatening injuries. To date, no record of any individual has been found that indicates any of the personnel who responded to the impact or recovered the SCUD from the harbor has sought medical attention for injuries associated with exposure to either of these substances. Source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Nitric Acid Fact Sheet and Hydrazine Fact Sheet.

[47] CNA Study, op.cit., page 18.

[48] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1257).

[49] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[50] NMCB-24 Command Post Log, op.cit.

[51] NMCB 24 Sick Call Log, op.cit.

[52] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1181).

[53] The actual wind direction is not known. As depicted in Figure 9, the wind direction was determined by interviewing the individuals involved in the incident.

[54] Lead Sheet 181, op.cit. [HTML, LEAD # 181

[55] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1400).

[56] Lead Sheet 632, op.cit.

[57] Report, January 3, 1995, Officer In Charge, Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit (EPMU) No. 2;Report on Purple Tee Shirt Episode Among Seabees in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, During Operation Desert Storm.

[58] Internal Letter, U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range, Material Test Directorate, July 20, 1993.

[59] Memorandum, U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Color Changes of T-Shirts Worn During Operation Desert Shield/Storm, 17 May 1994

[60] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 5311).

[61] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 5312).

[62] Interview notes (Lead Sheet 1281).

[63] Pamphlet, United Nations Environment Programme, Sasakawa Environment Prize, op.cit., p. 16.

[64] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit.

[65] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit.

[66] The Sasakawa Environmental Prize is awarded under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Program. It is considered to be one of the most prestigious environmental awards in the world. The Sasakawa award is named after Mr. Ryoichi Sasakawa, who was a Japanese environmental philanthropist, and Chairman of the Sasakawa Foundation. Pamphlet, United Nations Environment Programme, Sasakawa Environment Prize, op.cit., p. 16.

[67] Report, November 29, 1990, IMEF CNA Representative, Threat from Release of Chemicals Stored or produced in the Al Jubayl Area.

[68] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit.

[69] IMEF CNA study, op.cit.

[70] Memorandum, Threat from Release of Chemicals Stored or Produced in the Al Jubayl Area, December 3, 1990.

[71] "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction," April 29, 1997. This Chemical Weapons Convention was opened for signature in Paris, France, on January 13, 1993. It has been signed by 165 States and ratified by 93 States (as of June 1997.) It was signed by the U.S. on January 13, 1993 and ratified on April 25, 1997. Part XI of the Convention, "Investigations in Cases of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," details some of the procedures. [http://www.unog.ch/frames/disarm/distreat/chemical.htm]

[72] Based on locations reported for battalion-level Unit Identification Codes (UICs) derived from the Geographic Information System (GIS) [UIC-based personnel strengths from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)].

[73] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit

[74] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit

[75] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit

[76] EPMU-2 Report, op.cit

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